113. General Relations of Philosophy to Theology In the Middle Ages. -- (1) Non-doctrinal relations: (a) of origin. -- It was in the domain of theology that numerous problems of scholastic philosophy had their origin, especially in the early Middle Ages (172).
(b) Relations based on Methods of Teaching. -- Theology being regarded as the queenly and sacred science, the whole organization of teaching was devised and developed with a view to securing its fullest cultivation. Of this we have ample evidence in the programmes of the monastic schools and, later, of the universities. It was every one's ambition to become a theologian either after having been, or while still remaining, a philosopher (131, 132 and Second Period).
(2) Doctrinal relations: (a) of Co-ordination. -- Philosophy was regarded as distinct from theology in the thirteenth century (106); each science had its own constitutive methods and principles. At the same time there are certain constitutive methods which resulted from a positive collaboration of both sciences. Such, for instance, is the dialectic method in theology (see below, The Theological Movement in the Twelfth Century).
(b) Relations of Subordination. -- Philosophy was, in certain matters, subordinate to theology. It is from this historical thesis, which we shall explain and demonstrate in its proper place (see Second Period, exposition of scholastic system), that the definitions we are now considering are all derived. But can an adequate or satisfactory definition of scholastic philosophy be derived from the theological control to which its doctrines were subjected? This is the question we have here and now to consider.
<< ======= >>