ND   JMC : History of Medieval Philosophy / by Maurice De Wulf

127. Organization of Philosophical Schools. -- In the early Middle Ages there were two or even three classes of schools; and in these philosophy was taught equally with the other sciences (131). These were

(1) The monastic schools, each comprising (a) the schola interior or schola claustri, reserved for the monks, and (b) the schola exterior, open to the laity. During the epoch of Charlemagne and the Othos the majority of the great educators belonged by training or profession to the Benedictine order: commencing with Venerable Bede, the scholastic monk of Jarrow, whom tradition represents as the master of Alcuin. From the sixth and seventh centuries the monks of St. Benedict spread their schools all over Western Europe. They were joined in the tenth century by the monks of Cluny, and in the eleventh by other branches of the great family of the monks of the West.

(2) The episcopal, cathedral or capitular schools. -- In the eighth century Chrodegang, a canon of Metz (fl. 766), organized a common mode of life, after the model of the monastic, for the clergy of the episcopal churches. We find here the same division into interior and exterior schools.

Professorships (scholasticum officium) were sought by persons of the highest eminence. Oftentimes, especially in the earlier period, we find abbots of monasteries, bishops and chancellors exercising the function of scholasticus. Later on this title was given (with the office of teaching) to simple magistri scholae or "schoolmasters".

(3) The court or palace schools, scholae palatinae or scholae palatii, the most famous of which was the court school of the French kings. These recruited their professors from the Church and admitted clergy and laity alike to their lectures. The school being attached to the court, would accompany the latter in its various changes of abode.

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