ND   JMC : History of Medieval Philosophy / by Maurice De Wulf

263. The First Dominicans at Oxford. Robert Kilwardby. -- At Oxford the most noted Dominican master was Robert Kilwardby.{1} He defended most of the characteristic theories of the earlier school and took up an aggressive attitude against Thomism (312). He was successively professor at Oxford (1248-1261), provincial of his order (1261-1272), archbishop of Canterbury (1272-1278). He wrote commentaries on the Prior Analytics and on the Sophistical Reasonings. He is also the author of a treatise De Ortu et Divisione Philosophiae, which marks an advance on the similar treatise of Gundissalinus and is described by Baur as the most remarkable work of the Middle Ages on the classification of the sciences.{2} It unites the classifications of the schools of St. Victor with those of the Arabian school of Toledo. It is noteworthy not so much for any new ideas as for the author's care to show the peripatetic spirit of the work and to study in close detail the mutual relations of the various branches. The mechanical arts appear in philosophy alongside ethics; and logic, while contrasted as the scientia rationalis with all scientia realis, is incorporated into philosophy proper.{3}

{1} Before him is mentioned ROBERT FITZACRE, reputed author of some commentaries on the Sentences.

{2} Op. cit., p. 368.

{3} Baur also thinks he detects in Kilwardby the influence of St. Thomas. This is doubtful: Kilwardby was the uncompromising opponent of Thomistic theories. Here is Kilwardby's scheme of philosophy: I. Philosophia rerum divinarum (naturalis, mathematica, metaphysica). II. Philosophia rerum humanarum: (1) Practica. (a) Etbica (solitaria, privata, publica). (b) Artes Mechanicae. (2) Logica, scientia rationalis. Compare with St. Thomas's scheme: I. Philosophia Realis: (1) Theoretica vel speculativa (naturalis, mathematica, divina). (2) Practica (ethica vel monastica, oeconomica, politica). II. Philosophia Rationalis, Logica.

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