ND   JMC : History of Medieval Philosophy / by Maurice De Wulf

298. Knowledge in General. -- A recognized authority on scholasticism, Fr. Kleutgen,{1} reduces to three general principles the teaching of the scholastics on the nature and origin both of sense knowledge and intellectual knowledge: --

(1) The object known is in the knowing subject, as a mode of being of the latter. "Cognitum est in cognoscente secundum modum cognoscentis." This is an application of the more general principle: "Receptum est in recipiente secundum modum recipientis".

(2) Knowledge arises in the subject knowing, after the manner of an image representative of the object known. "Omnis cognitio fit secundum similitudinem cogniti in cognoscente."

(3) This representation is engendered by the concurrence of the knowing agent and the known object: a co-operation which guarantees the real objectivity of our knowledge.

{1} KLEUTGEN, La Philosophe Scolastique (French translation), v. i., pp. 36 sqq. (Paris, 1868).

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