ND   JMC : History of Medieval Philosophy / by Maurice De Wulf

314. Other Supporters of Thomism. -- (1) Thomism was not slow to gain partisans in the ranks of the other religious orders. HUMBERT OF PRULLI established it among the Cistercians; GILES OF ROME, among the Hermits of St. Augustine. The latter, however, influenced by a natural sympathy with the Doctor whose habit he wore, refused to relinquish certain Augustinian theses: he will be classified with the eclectics (§ 3).

(2) The Paris Faculty of Arts mourned the death of St. Thomas and long revered his memory. Many who had listened in admiration to his lectures, remained faithful to the new teaching and went to swell the ranks of his earliest disciples. Recruits were also drawn from among the clerics and the secular masters of the Faculty of Theology. Of the number of these latter is PETER OF AUVERGNE (d. about 305). He probably followed the lectures of St. Thomas, is the author of Quodlibeta (unpublished), and became rector of the University in 1275. Hauréau attributes to him certain Thomistic commentaries on Aristotle's Physics and Metaphysics.{1} He completed the De Coelo et Mundo of St. Thomas (272).

It is customary to place among the faithful supporters of Thomism PETRUS HISPANUS (1226-1277), who must probably be identified with the Portuguese Juliani, the future Pope John XXI. It was he who ordered Stephen Tempier to hold the well-known investigation into the errors prevalent in the Paris schools. Besides certain writings on medicine, he is the author of Summulae Logicales, a compendium of the Paris teaching on logic -- a treatise which shows what great store was set on proficiency in exercises of formal logic even in this, the great century of scholasticism.{2} The Summulae was immediately adopted as a text-book in the schools. In addition to the matters treated in the Logica vetus and the Logica nova (231), the Summulae also contained certain new developments which were henceforth called by the title of Logica modernorum.{3} These are mainly studies on the properties of logical terms and their relations to grammatical terms.{4}

(3) The prestige of Thomism went on increasing in the schools from the end of the thirteenth all through the fourteenth century. The Oxford censures had never the force of law at the University of Paris; even the prohibitions of Stephen Tempier failed to suppress the free discussion of Thomist doctrines and interfered but little if at all with their success in the schools.{5} Moreover. they were withdrawn by Bishop Stephen Borretus on the 13th of February, 1325, a year after the canonization of St. Thomas. There is no trace of a similar withdrawal at Oxford, but we know otherwise that about the year 1288 the conflict between Peckham and the Dominicans was settled.

On the other hand, Thomism slowly found its way into the general intellectual atmosphere of the age. DANTE'S Divina Comedia and VINCENT OF BEAUVAIS' works of popularization are proofs in point. The Speculum Magnum, a vast encyclopedia compiled by Vincent of Beauvais (d. about 1268) at the instance of Louis IX., gives an inventory of all the human sciences cultivated up to that time. He divides them into historical, natural and moral (speculum historiale, naturale, doctrinale), and in his speculum naturale it is to the Albertino-Thomistic teaching he gives his preference.{6} As for Dante, the great philosopher-poet, his immortal stanzas have clothed in a fascinating symbolism the profoundest speculations of Albertus Magnus and St. Thomas. Led by Beatrice, the personification of the highest wisdom of theology, Dante enters the abode of the blessed and encounters, as he goes along, the great problems raised by the philosophy of his century. As a matter of fact, during the long pilgrimage consequent on his banishment from Florence,{7} he had the opportunity of following the lectures of the great scholastics at the University of Paris. Not alone his Divina Comedia, but even still more his De Monarchia is steeped in Thomism. Improving on the Thomistic politics, from which he borrows his premisses, Dante sketches an ideal State in the form of a universal monarchy.{8}

{1} Hist. de la Philos. Scolast. ii.2, p. 157.

{2} The Sunopsis eis tên Aristotelous logikên, an almost literal reproduction of the Summulae Logicales, is not a treatise of Psellus (eleventh century) translated by P. Hispanus, but is a Greek translation of the latter's Summulae by Georgios Scholarios (Gennadius), dating from the fifteenth century.

{3} UEBERWEG, op. cit., pp. 190 and 301.

{4} The Syncategoremata formed a favourite theme for Iogico-grammatical studies in the thirteenth century. Hauréau calls attention to a treatise on the subject by NICHOLAS OF PARIS in the middle of the thirteenth century (Not. et Extr., etc., ii, p. 43). On the sophismata and general logical exercises in the thirteenth century, see MANDONNET, op. cit., p. cxxxli.

{5} D'ARGENTRÉ, Collectio Judic., i., p. 213, attributes to Giles of Rome this severe judgment on Tempier's censures: "nihil esse curandum, quia fuerunt facti (articuli), non convocatis omnibus doctoribus parisiensibus, sed ad requisitionem quorumdam capitusorum.

{6} Another encyclopedist, BARTHOLOMARUS ANGLICUS, of the first half of the thirteenth century, compiled a treatise De Proprietatibus which deals mainly with knowledge of the sciences (FELDER, op. Cit., p. 252).

{7} Born at Florence in 1265, Dante belonged to the Guelf party, and when Charles of Anjou captured the city, in 1301, the poet was obliged to go into exile for his political views. From this time he travelled much through Europe, dying at Ravenna in 1321. After he was exiled he inclined towards the Ghibeline party, without, however, joining the Imperialists.

{8} We may mention here, for want of a group in which to classify him, JAMES OF DOUAI, a little-known writer of the thirteenth century. Hauréau quotes from a commentary of his, De Anima (Hist. Litter. France, t. xxi., p. 157), texts which show their author to have been a moderate realist. But Hauréau's analyses are not exhaustive, referring only to the Universals controversy (117). Cf. our Hist Philos. Scol. ds. Pays-Bas, etc., p. 281. We may mention too, SIGER OF COURTRAI, magister artium in 1309, member of the Sorbonne in 1310, later on master of theology, d. 1341, who has left four school-compendiums on logic: ars priorum; summa modorum significandi; a fragment on fallacies; a sophisma or dialectic exercise entitled "album potest esse nigrum". These will appear in 1910 in our collection Les Philosophes Belges ".

<< ======= >>