ND   JMC : History of Medieval Philosophy / by Maurice De Wulf

438. Campanella. -- The Physics of Telesius was one of the most original and masterful productions of the Renaissance. CAMPANELLA (1568-1639) took it up and added to it a Metaphysics and a Politics.{1} Being, as such, implies three "primalities" (primalitates) which are of its very essence (essentiatur): the power by which it can exist and act (potentia), the knowledge that reveals it to itself (sapientia), and the love which inclines it to will its good (amor). Inversely, pure non-being implies impotentia, insipientia and odium. God alone is pure Being and possesses all the fulness of the real primalities. Every creature distinct from Him is a mixture of being and non-being (traces of scholasticism); it possesses the essential primalities in the degree in which it has reality. Telesius had already attributed to physical forces the power of feeling. Campanella now gave to this cosmic panpsychism a metaphysical, universal significance.

His Politics he based on the love man bears to himself, and to society as a prolongation of himself. His Civitas Solis, which was in some measure inspired by More's Utopia, is a fanciful description of an ideal State in which individual liberty is regulated in all its details with a view to the common good.

We may add of Campanella that he was deeply devoted to the chimeras of astrology and magic. Through them he hoped to attain to a knowledge of the inner antipathies and sympathies of things, and of the cosmic function of the world-soul -- that great, benign power charged by God with the maintenance of order in the universe. It is, however, in the naturalism of Paracelsus and Cardanus that the occult sciences are found to dominate.

{1} Amongst his very numerous works, re-edited in 1854 by D'Ancona, are the following: Prodromus Philosophiae Instaurandae; Realis Philosophiae Partes Quatuor; Philosophiae Rationalis Partes Quinque; Universalis Philosophiae seu Metaphysicarum Rerum juxta Propria Principia Partes Tres.

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