Jacques Maritain Center

Moral Philosophy


1 Cf. Du Régime Temporel et de la Liberté, Paris: Desclée De Brouwer et Cie, 1933, p. 21; and Chap. V below.

2 In his excellent book Fountain of Justice, A Study in the Natural Law, New York: Sheed and Ward, 1955, p. 219; London: Sheed and Ward, 1959.


1 Cf. Heinrich Rommen, Die ewige Wiederkehr des Naturrechts, Leipzig: Hegner, 1936. We have used the excellent English translation, The Natural Law, St. Louis: Herder, 1947, p. 9.

2 Cf. George S. Sabine, A History of Political Theory, Revised Edition, New York: Henry Holt, 1950, p. 30; London: Harrap, 1951.


1 Metaphysics, XIII, 4, 1078 b 18-25.


1 Kierkegaard was twenty-eight at the time of this doctoral dissertation (1841), which is extensively analyzed by Pierre Mesnard in Le Vrai Visage de Kierkegaard (Paris: Beauchesne, 1948, pp. 117-179). The quotations given by the author refer to the German translation of Wilhelm Rutemeyer, Der Begriff der Ironie mit ständiger Rücksicht auf Sokrates, München: Kaiser Verlag, 1929.

2 Cf. Pierre Mesnard, op. cit, p. 125.

3 Ibid. (Der Begriff . . . , p. 38).

4 Ibid., p. 139.

5 Ibid., p. 137 (Der Begriff . . . , p. 134).

6 Ibid., p. 140.

7 Ibid., pp. 140-141. Kierkegaard wrote in Der Begriff . . . , p. 159: "In his constant effort transcend the phenomenon by passing into idea, that is to say into his dialectical activity, the individual is repulsed and must beat a retreat toward reality; but reality itself has no other value than to offer him ceaselessly the opportunity to escape from reality, without any possibility that this will occur; the individual is thus led to repress these efforts of subjectivity and to bury them in his personal satisfaction; but it is precisely this attitude which constitutes irony." (Italics ours.)


1 Olivier Lacombe, Chemins de l'Inde et Philosophie Chrétienne, Paris: Alsatia, 1956, "Socrate et la sagesse indienne," pp. 56-57).

2 Symposium, 220, in Plato, trans. Lane Cooper, Oxford University Press, 1938. op. cit, p. 56.

3 Symposium, 175, trans. Lane Cooper, op. cit

4 Cf. Roger Godd, Socrate et le Sage Indien, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1953.


1 Leon Robin, in Platon, Oeuvres complètes, Le Banquet, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, p. cviii, n. 2. (With reference to the eulogy of Socrates pronounced by Alcibiades at the end of the Symposium.)

2 Olivier Lacombe, op. cit, p. 58. The author continues: "For it 3 Ibid., p. 59.

3 Ibid., p. 60. The Self of the Indian sage "is absolute, and, for the most important of the Brahmin schools, total and unique".

4 Ibid., p. 59.

5 Ibid.

6 Cf. Phaedrus, 230, trans. Lane Cooper, op. cit "I am a lover of learning; the countryside and the trees will not instruct me; 'tis the people in the city are my teachers."

7 Cf. our essay "L'expérience mystique naturelle et le vide", in Quatre Essais sur l'esprit, sa condition charnelle, 2nd ed., Paris: Alsatia, 1956. English translation of this essay as it appears in the first edition, in Ransoming the Time, New York: Scribners, 1941, ch. X.; Redeeming the Time, London: Bles, 1943.


1 Phaedo, 67, in The Dialogues of Plato, trans. B. Jowett, New York: Random House, 1937 vol. I.; London: OUP.

2 Apology, 30.

3 Ibid., 21, 28.

4 Ibid., 21, 23.


1 Cf. Kurt von Fritz, Philosophie und sprachlicher Ausdruck bei Demokrit, Plato und Aristoteles, New York: Stechert, undated, and Gregory Vlastos, "Ethics and Physics in Democritus", Philosophical Review, LIV, 6 (Nov. 1945), 578-592 and LV, 1 (Jan. 1946), 53-64. -- The word athambiê, remote ancestor of the Epicurean ataraxy, and which Prof. Vlastos translates as undismay (op. cit., LIV, 6, p. 582), designates for Democritus the state of mind proper to a sage, whom nothing can ruffle and nothing can depress (Fritz, p. 32). In his conclusion (LV, pp. 62-64), Prof. Vlastos very rightly characterizes the naturalism of Democritus as opposed to that of Anaximander and Heraclitus as well as that of Parmenides and Empedocles.

2 The Two Sources of Morality and Religion, trans. R. Ashley Audra and Cloudesley Brereton. Ness York: Henry Holt, 1935, p. 53: London: Macmillan, 1935.


1 Eudemian Ethics, 1, 5.

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